1. Gow-Gates technique
2. Vazirani-Akinosi technique
3. Coronoid approach
For a clear understanding of the technical descriptions that follow (see below), it is important to be conversant with some dental anatomic terminology. These terms may be illustrated by considering the anatomy of the second maxillary molar tooth.
The second maxillary molar tooth is placed between the first and third molar teeth and is the seventh tooth from the midline. The visible part of the tooth is called the crown, and the parts covered by the gum are the 3 roots of the tooth. The dividing line that separates the roots from the crown is called the cervical line.
The crown has the following 5 surfaces:
- - Occlusal
- - Buccal
- - Lingual (palatal)
- - Mesial
- - Distal
The occlusal, buccal, and lingual surfaces are self-explanatory, referring to those particular surfaces of the tooth. The mesial surface is the anterior surface of the tooth—in this case, the surface adjoining the first molar tooth.
The distal surface is the posterior surface—in this case, the surface adjoining the third molar tooth.
The buccal surface of the tooth has the following 2 protuberances or cusps, which are separated by the buccal groove:
An anterior protuberance, called the mesiobuccal cusp
A posterior protuberance, called the distobuccal cusp
Similarly, the lingual surface has a mesiolingual cusp and a distolingual cusp, which are separated by the lingual groove.